Hyperpigmentation Discolorations

"Hyperpigmentation occurs when Melanin is overproduced  by pigment cells. Solutions exist."

Professor Leonardo Marini. MD Dermatology, Skin Doctors' Center.

hyperpigmentation cells

Hyperpigmentation is associated with a number of skin conditions. Some of these conditions require medical support. Make sure that you visit a dermatologist that will guide you with the diagnostic and treatment of your condition.




Although it is also called the mask of pregnancy, many Melasma patients develop this skin disease without any relation to pregnancy and the disease also affects men. Contraceptive pills, sun exposure and certain medications such as phenytoin can induce Melasma. There is a genetic predisposition to melasma, with at least one-third of patients reporting other family members to be affected. However, in most cases, the cause of melasma is complex and remains unclear.  Get Medical Advice.



Post Inflamatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH)

Post inflamatory hyperpigmentation is due to a number of factors, that can be classified as: endogeneous factors, particularly: post-acne hyperpigmentation and post-eczema hyperpigmentation, and exogeneous factors, particularly: post-scaring hyperpigmentation, post-burn hyperpigmentation, post-surgery hyperpigmentation, post-laser hyperpigmentation, post-needling hyperpigmentation, post-peeling hyperpigmentation, etc.  Get Medical Advice.




A Lentigo is a small pigmented spot on the skin with a clearly defined edge, surrounded by normal-appearing skin of the face or the hand usually. A Lentigo has an increased number of melanocytes. It is benign, however one might desire the removal or treatment of some of them for aesthetics purposes.  Get Medical Advice.




Freckles are clusters of concentrated melaninized cells which are most easily visible on people with a fair complexion. Freckles do not have an increased number of the melanin-producing cells, or melanocytes, but instead have melanocytes that overproduce melanin granules (melanosomes) changing the coloration of the outer skin cells (keratinocytes). Combinaison of laser or peeling with Cysteamine is the best option: Laser and peeling will produce immediate effects but results will not last, while Cysteamine will take few weeks to activate and then effects will last for good.  Get Free Medical Advice.



Eye Contour Dark Circles Discoloration

Periorbital hyperpigmentation is a commonly encountered condition. Eye contour dark circles affect the person’s emotional well-being and influence quality of life. It is caused by various exogenous and endogenous factors. The causative factors include genetic or heredity, excessive pigmentation, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.   Get Free Medical Advice.



Leap Discoloration - Getting Pink Leaps

Until Cysteamine, no treatment worked and leap discoloration was a concern people with dark leaps and with leaps of uneven skin color, but not an addressed topic. For the first time dark leaps discoloration can turn into even-tone, pretty rose - pink leaps. Get Free Medical Advice.



Intimate Area Discoloration

Male and female intimate areas are also affected by hyperpigmentation. Improving the appearance of the intimate area does play a role in the well-being and self-esteem of many. Cysteamine offers a gentle but very effective solution to bleach and whiten intimate discoloration of the underarm, nipple, bikini line and genital area. Combinaison of laser or peeling with Cysteamine is also an option: Laser and peeling will produce immediate effects but results will not last more than few weeks, while Cysteamine will take few weeks to activate and then effects will last for good. Get Free Medical Advice.



Other types of hyperpigmentation discoloration 

Hyperpigmentation is also associated with a number of other diseases or conditions, which requires strict medical diagnostic, treatment and follow up by a dermatologist.  Get Medical Advice.

These include: Acanthosis nigricans (hyperpigmentation of intertriginous areas) ; Addison's disease and other sources of adrenal insufficiency ;  Aromatase deficiency ; Coeliac disease ; Cronkite-Canada syndrome ; Cushing's disease or other excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production ; Grave's disease ; HaemochromatosisLinea nigra ; Nelson's syndrome ; Peutz-Jeghers syndromePorphyria ;  Tinea cruris ; Tinea fungal infections such as ringworm.

Exposure to certain chemicals such as salicylic acid, bleomycin, cisplatin leads to hyperpigmentation discoloration. This is particularly the case with mercury poisoning —particularly cases of cutaneous exposure resulting from the topical application of mercurial ointments or skin-whitening creams.


How hyperpigmentation discolorations are treated today?

Hyperpigmentation discoloration can be very slow to respond to treatment, especially if it has been present for a long time. Treatment may result in irritant contact dermatitis in patients with sensitive skin, and this can result in (further) post-inflammatory pigmentation.

Several depigmenting treatments have been developped. The most effective treatments have been based on topical products that contain hydroquinone. Hydroquinone, after being applied onto the skin, is absorbed by the melanocytes and is metabolized within the (hyper-functioning) melanocytes to produce a toxic radical (quinone) that causes the abnormal melanocyte to die. This causes the hyperpigmentation area to become normal in colour, as hydroquinone has little or no effect on the normally functioning melanocytes.

Although hydroquinone is considered to be the most effective treatment for hyperpigmentation, its use has become more and more restricted in recent years due to reports on the cancer-producing effect of this agent. Hydroquinone has thus been banned in several countries including European countries and Japan.

A substitute to hydroquinone?

After the hydroquinone ban, several products have been developed and put on the market for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. These products contain depigmenting agents such as kojic acid, azelaic acid, arbutin, glabridin, and more recently developed molecules, such as 4-butyl resorcinol or 4-ethyl-phenyl resorcinol. However, experience has shown that the majority of these molecules and fractional laser treatments are far less effective than hydroquinone as hyperpigmentation treatments.

This leaves health-authorities, clinicians and patients seeking for a true substitute.